Examples of Question/Assessment Type Alignment to Verb

Examples of Question/Assessment Type Alignment to Verb

Question/ Assessment Type

Lower Order Higher Order

Knowledge

Comprehension

Application

Analysis

Synthesis*

Evaluation

Multiple-choice

Identify

Recall

Recognize

Select

Classify

Distinguish

Select

Apply

Determine

Interpret

Solve

Analyze

Appraise

Diagnose

Infer

Conclude

Predict

Matching

Arrange

Identify

Match

Recall

Recognize

Classify

Distinguish

Select

Determine

Short answer

Define

List

Name

Describe

Discuss

Explain

Summarize

Apply

Illustrate

Interpret

Modify

Solve

Analyze

Appraise

Compare

Contrast

Diagnose

Examine

Infer

Compose

Appraise**

Conclude

Defend

Justify

Predict

Essay

Describe

Discuss

Explain

Apply

Interpret

Modify

Produce

Analyze

Appraise

Diagnose

Examine

Infer

Compose

Create

Design

Develop

Appraise

Conclude

Defend

Evaluate

Justify

Predict

Discussion Board

Describe

Discuss

Explain

Apply

Illustrate

Interpret

Modify

Analyze

Appraise

Compose

Appraise

Defend

Evaluate

Justify

Predict

*Assessing the synthesis category usually takes an assignment since the students are combining elements to create something new. So it could be assessed through an activity or writing assignment.

**Notice that Appraise is listed in the Analysis and Evaluation columns (Select is another one listed in multiple categories). Verbs are an indicator of the category but context also matters (see Jones et al., 2009). A surface-level appraisal where students recognize different elements of importance is lower order (Analysis) than a comprehensive appraisal where students are responsible for a thorough review accounting for all components (Evaluation).