Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson wrote the “Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education” in 1987 to improve teaching and learning. In 1991, Chickering and Gamson published a book titled Applying the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. The original article and book are based on decades of research on undergraduate education supported by the Association for Higher Education, The Education Commission of States, and the Johnson Foundation.
The Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education
- Encourage contact between students and faculty
- Develop reciprocity and cooperation among students
- Encourage active learning
- Give prompt feedback
- Emphasize time on task
- Communicate high expectations
- Respect diverse talents and ways of learning
From “The Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education:”
“These seven principles are not ten commandments shrunk to a 20th century attention span. They are intended as guidelines for faculty members, students, and administrators – with support from state agencies and trustees — to improve teaching and learning. These principles seem like good common sense, and they are — because many teachers and students have experienced them and because research supports them. They rest on 50 years of research on the way teachers teach and students learn, how students work and play with one another, and how students and faculty talk to each other.”
The following information includes an explanation of each of the Seven Principles of Undergraduate Education as well as examples of how an instructor may apply the seven principles in the development and instruction of all courses including online, hybrid and regular enrollment courses.
- Encourage contact between students and faculty “Frequent interaction with faculty members is more strongly related to satisfaction with college than any other type of involvement, or, indeed, any other student or institutional characteristic.” (Astin, 1985, pp. 133-151)
- Utilize virtual or regular classroom environments to hold synchronous class activities and provide opportunities for the students to interact with the instructor at a distance by using a web conferencing tool.
- Provide personal feedback quickly to students on assignments and assessments. Utilize rubrics for projects and papers to standardize grading and provide built-in feedback.
- Hold office hours (virtual and in person), make opportunities for review sessions and study groups using a virtual classroom, and/or utilize the chatfeature of your Learning Management System (LMS).
- Provide opportunities for discussions using discussion activities and comment on student posts to show a “presence” in the course. Give work and study groups discussion boards for their use and “check-in” to see how students are progressing.
- Provide opportunities for collaboration such as discussion, group projects and assignments, and peer evaluation. Utilize the tools in an LMS to provide students with a discussion and collaboration space.
- Provide opportunities for students to interact with content during presentations or lectures utilizing tools such as video discussion platforms, social media, or live classroom response systems.
- Allow students to relate the material to their own interests through reflections and presentations. Encourage self-evaluation and peer-review. Provide students with rubrics for evaluation and have multiple students evaluate the same project by using the collaboration tools, chats, or discussion boards.
- Discover the various communication tools and applications of your LMS to provide opportunities to interact with the content and each other.
- Respond to student queries and problems quickly. Utilize discussions, polling, and/or social media during or after a lecture to provide opportunities for students to ask questions.
- Utilize rubrics for grading projects and papers to standardize grading and provide prompt feedback to students.
- Utilize low-stakes assessments to provide students with frequent assessments of their learning and provide frequent feedback on progress.
- Provide frequently updated student grades by using the gradebook feature in your LMS.
- Respond to distance students within a 24 hour time period if possible. If this is not realistic for the instructor, outline in the syllabus what students can expect for instructor response times.
- Emphasize deadlines in the syllabus and provide students with reminders about upcoming deadlines. Utilize social network platforms or LMS announcements to send brief reminders or bits of information to students.
- Give consistent and frequent deadlines to distance students such as weekly discussion requirements by the same day/time each week, low-stakes quizzes on the same day/time each week, and weekly reminders to continue work on long-term projects.
- Break large projects into smaller, more manageable pieces and require students to hit benchmarks during the duration of the project. For example, require students to present a brainstorming list, an outline, resources, a rough draft, and a final draft to a paper or project.
- Provide students with detailed explanations and expectations in the syllabus.
- Provide students with rubrics for projects and papers detailing what must be accomplished and the grade value for each item. This allows students to know exactly what is expected of them.
- Set realistic expectations for course activities and assessments that communicate high but attainable expectations.
- Develop and implement the course using proven learning theories.
- Incorporate a variety of activities into the course including collaboration, group and individual projects, papers, low stakes assessments, and discussions to reach a variety of learning preferences.
- Present course materials in a variety of methods to reach the most modalities possible.
References and Additional Resources
- AAHE’s seven principles for good practice applied to an online literacy course:A scholarly article from the Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges discussing the application of the Seven Rules of Undergraduate Education in an undergraduate online course at Middle Tennessee State University. The paper discusses best practices, course development, class procedures and recommendations.
- The Implications of the Norms of Undergraduate College Students for Faculty Enactment of Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education:A scholarly article from the Peabody Journal of Education examining empirical evidence for the support of the Seven Rules of Undergraduate Education. The article includes the implication for theory and practice in the context of the study.